1、walden is a novel written by famous american transcendentalist, henry david thoreau，in 1854.
2、the prefix “ trans” indicates a kind of change.
3、transcendentalism has three major concepts: oversoul, nature and knowledge.
4、in the 19th century, the interests of philosophical movement focus on the physical world.
5、thoreau was not escaping from society, as some chinese poets like tao yuanming did. instead, he was doing a social practice to explore other possible ways of life.
6、in western culture, there has always been a conflict anthropocentrism and ecocentrism. the latter is a human centered system while the former is nature-centered.
7、transcendentalism indicates is from the physical world to the______ world, from the reliance on reason to the reliance on intuition, and from the mind to the heart.
8、transcendentalism shares some of the features of romanticism: the importance of ______, the exultation of individual over society, the new and thrilling delight in nature etc.
9、the individuals can communicate with the ________l when they immerse themselves in nature and reach a state of perfection.
10、the ecological thought revealed by thoreau is that the relationship between man and nature should shift from the “i” vs. “you” conflict to the ______ of “part and whole”
1-2 imagism: the beauty of nature随堂测验
1、imagism flourished in britain and the united states in the late 20th century.
2、imagism originated from the philosophy of t. e. hume, who insisted on the reformation of contemporary poetry through free verse and through the removal of all unnecessary verbiages from poems.
3、magism as a poetic movement was launched in england. its development can be divided into three phases.
4、williams carlos’ definition of the image was “that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.”
5、williams wrote poems that captured ordinary moments and ordinary objects, such as the red wheelbarrow.
6、imagism refers to a revolutionary movement of poetry, which favored precise images, clear and sharp language and________.
7、in an instant of time.”
8、williams presents a leisurely and fresh picture of an/a ______scene of american country life in his poem the red wheel barrow.
9、chinese poets instill_______ in their poetry, whereas the imagists, as they advocated, try to avoid emotional attachment.
10、in "a station of the metro", pound uses a _______ to construct the poem: he compares “faces” to “petals” and “crowd” to “a wet black bough”.
1-3 gary snyder: deep ecology随堂测验
1、gary snyder is one of the lost generation.
2、snyder redefines the ways in which nature is popularly perceived.
3、in snyder’s philosophy of nature, wildness is the ongoing process of the evolution of nature.
4、deeper approach comes from a more sensitive openness to ourselves and nonhuman life around us.
5、according to warwick fox, there is a bifurcation in reality between the human and the non-human realms.
6、snyder points out that “nature is ultimately in no way endangered; ______is.”
7、snyder proposes three categories: ______the wild, and wilderness.
8、in pine tree tops “what do we know.” is a________ question.
9、in pine tree tops we can perceive only through our ______senses.
10、the attraction of the snyder’s poem is it leads to______ and mystical feelings.
chapter two man vs. society
2-1 puritanism and colonial expansion随堂测验
1、puritans are groups of reformed or calvinist christians in england，believing that the church of england had betrayed the spirit of the reformation.
2、in order to escape english persecution, puritans emigrated to plymouth, america directly.
3、for puritans, god’s choice to save people is unconditionally grounded on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith in those people.
4、according to the puritan definition of good writing, whatever the style or genre, certain themes remained constant.
5、the puritans had already drawn lines of distinction between the secular and religious spheres.
6、to puritans,_____is a matter of primary importance.
7、puritans hold several distinct doctrines:______, original sin and total depravity, and limited atonement.
8、the puritan definition of good writing emphasizes the importance of worshipping ______ .
9、scholars have long pointed out the link between puritanism and capitalism: both rest on ambition,_________, and an intense striving for success.
10、puritans tended to feel that earthly success was a sign of______.
2-2 “rip van winkle”：literature vs. history随堂测验
1、the story is “rip van winkle”, written by washington irving, who is generally regarded as the first internationally recognized american author.
2、rip van winkle enjoyed great popularity among the villagers and his families.
3、in order to escape his nagging wife, rip van winkle took his gun and his dog wolf with him to enter the forests in the catskills.
4、when rip returned to the village, he found everything kept the same.
5、for plato, art or poetry not only means a copy, but also represents reality.
6、rip van winkle is borrowed from a______ legend.
7、after rip entered the forest, he met a group of strange people, who were actually the _____of his ancestors.
8、irving attached a note by knickerbocker, because he wanted to emphasize the______of the story.
9、according to plato, the only true reality is the unchanging world of the_____ , created by god.
10、the whole story reflects the psychological truth of the american people before and after the______ .
2-3 consumerism in "a pair of silk stockings"随堂测验
1、“a pair of silk stockings”, written by the famous american female writer kate chopin and published in 1897.
2、chopin are good at exploring some taboos, like miscegenation, divorce and female sexuality.
3、when this story was published, women in the united states had already got much independence financially and socially.
4、a pair of silk stocking existed in little mrs. sommers’ purchasing list all the time.
5、after purchasing the stockings, boots and gloves, mrs. sommers had a feeling of guilty.
6、kate chopin is generally regarded as the pioneering writer of ______in american literature.
7、the major conflict in chopin’s works is between a women’s need for _____ and the dependence on her husband.
8、in western literature, snake represents some special_____.
9、the basic idea of consumerism is the equation of personal happiness with ______and the purchase of material possessions.
10、in the restaurant, after mrs. sommers tipped the waiter, he treated her as a______.
2-4 the wasteland： spiritual crisis随堂测验
1、one major theme of the waste land is about peace between people.
2、the waste land has been called “one of the most important poems of the 19th century”.
3、t.s. eliot’s poem is hard to read only because the poet uses a lot of obscure allusions.
4、a classicist as t.s. eliot advocated himself to be, his poems are actually modern.
5、in section three “the fire sermon”, you watch as a dead sailor named phlebas decays at the bottom of the ocean.
6、the general structure of the waste land is built by tracing from death to .
7、in the waste land, the great despair of modern existence doesn’t just come from a sense of meaninglessness, but from a very deep______ .
8、modern existence, with its emphasis on ______ , is a breeding ground for isolation and loneliness.
9、to t.s. eliot, the second world war not only destroyed people’s home, but also their_______ .
10、the whole structure of the waste land is in________ .
2-5 the death of a salesman: collapse of american dream随堂测验
1、arthur miller’s death of a salesman is hailed as the most famous three tragedies in the history of american drama along with eugene o'neill's long day’s journey into night and tennessee williams’s a streetcar named desire.
2、arthur miller likes to present the conflicts in the american upper-class family.
3、arthur miller does not seem to partake the great suffering and great strength that conjures up the individual defeat in his works.
4、willy loman is an ordinary person, so his individual failure can’t evoke audience’s pity.
5、willy loman commits suicide just because he got fired by the company.
6、from the fluidity of time and space, we get to know that willy loman used to be a successful ______ when he was young.
7、willy loman’s tragedy reveals the disillusionment of ________.
8、_______ is the hero in arthur miller’s world-famous play death of a salesman, which has been taken as a fable on american dream.
9、arthur miller is an expressionist, whose plays feature the fluidity of time and ______ .
10、r.w. emerson and h.d. thoreau have set up a good example of the spiritual side of american dream: you can achieve perfection through the communication with ______ in nature without going to the church or referring to the priest.
2-6 invisible man and black music随堂测验
1、we can learn from invisible man that racism is a devastating force, possessing the power to render black americans virtually invisible.
2、the book invisible man presents a story of an unnamed young black man from the south who has fully understood racism in the world.
3、in the novel invisible man, the young black narrator is invisible within the larger culture because of his race.
4、invisible man has been praised for its innovative style and unique treatment of controversial subject matter.
5、jazz is tied to the yearning for liberation and self-expression of people who live in africa.
6、according to invisible man, ______ is a devastating force, possessing the power to render black americans virtually invisible.
7、the opening lines of invisible man introduce the protagonist, the invisible man and the theme of .
8、the protagonist of invisible man encounters many people and situations that slowly force him to face the truth about racism and his own lack of ______.
9、ralph ellison uses jazz as a ______, especially that of the role of a soloist who is bound within the traditions and forms of a group performance.
10、as an important part of black culture, ________ in invisible man is the call of black tradition and is the narrator’s subconscious spiritual return.
chapter three man vs.man
3-1 male gaze in'the birthmark"随堂测验
1、the birth-mark was first published in the pioneer in march 1843.
2、this "singular mark" wears "a tint of deeper crimson," bearing similarity to the human hand."
3、michel foucault elaborated on the gaze to illustrate a particular dynamic in power relations and disciplinary mechanisms in his an analysis of “the look”.
4、for michel foucault, ever-visible inmate is always “a subject in communication, never the object of information”.
5、aylmer became mad, incapable of love, of community, of sympathy, like so many of hawthorne's scientists-artists.
6、the birth-mark indicates the power _____ of husband and wife.
7、according to the oxford dictionary, gaze embodies certain aspects of the _____ between observer and observed.”
8、other people’s look sheds a clear impact on the formation of our _____ .
9、foucault illustrated the function of prison as an _____ of power.
10、aylmer’s desired intention has manifested itself: to remove the _____ on georgiana’s face.
3-2 misunderstanding in "a day's wait"随堂测验
1、a day’s wait was written by ernest hemingway who didn’t participate in the two world wars.
2、among one of the finest writers of the 20th century, hemingway was awarded the nobel prize for literature in 1954.
3、the dialogue between the father and son in the story revealed a close relationship between them and both of them are quite good at expressing feelings.
4、the misunderstanding firstly arose when the doctor came and took the boy’s temperature.
5、hemingway’ s writing style is known as the iceberg theory or iceberg principle.
6、a day’s wait adopts the first-person _______.
7、the first is literal misunderstanding, namely the misunderstanding of the _____ of temperature.
8、the second level of misunderstanding lay on the ______ of effective communication.
9、the “it” which little boy talked about in the story is actually ______.
10、as for structure of the story, hemingway design the the action that the father leaves his sick son alone to hunt to stress the sense of ______ in son’s mind.
3-3 desire under the elms and tragedy随堂测验
1、dionysus is the god of the sun, of rational thinking and order, and appeals to logic, prudence and purity, while apollo is the god of wine and dance, of irrationality and chaos, and appeals to emotions and instincts.
2、eugene o’neill frames actions fundamental to his play, especially the conflict between a man who sought to achieve a dionysian rapture and another who was dedicated to a life of unflinching self-denial and hardship.
3、the warfare between eben and cabot becomes the embodiment of a theological conflict based broadly on the antagonism of the dionysian and the apollonian forces.
4、with nietzsche’s help, eugene o’neill is able to see eben, the opponent of the dionysian ideal.
5、nietzsche’s aesthetic usage of the concept about the dichotomy between apollo and dionysus was first appeared in his book the birth of tragedy published in 1872.
6、desire under the elms was written by the father of american tragedy and the first american dramatist of international recognition: ______ .
7、in desire under the elms, eugene o’neil has made the anti-dionysian force approximate to puritan ______.
8、the power of _____ is released when eben made love to abbie on the sofa in his mother’s parlor.
9、desire under the elms evolved from o’neill’s perspective that men who are forced to serve alien gods are doomed to ..
10、dominant in the heart of the play are the two powerful forces moving through the land, a power that lies in the stones and a power that dwells in the _____ .
3-4 the kite runner and initiation novel随堂测验
1、the kite runner is the first novel written by afghan-american writer khaled hosseini.
2、the term initiation novel first appeared in american in the late 18century.
3、after reading the kite runner, we know baba’s love for hassan is out of sympathy.
4、initiation novel often tend to use the third person narrative.
5、amir didn’t forget his past and guilt even after twenty years of being away from afghanistan.
6、initiation novel is a kind of novel related to the_____ of a youth.
7、initiation novel usually has a similar plot pattern, “departure — ordeal — transformation —_______.”
8、initiation novel often tend to use the _____ person narrative, as in jane eyre and moby dick.
9、through a long and dangerous journey of escape, amir has obtained a deep understanding of life and death, which drives him out of _____ .
10、in the end of the story, we know that hassan is baba’s illegitimate son, so baba’s love for hassan is out of_____ .
3-5 "everyday use" and cultural conflict随堂测验
1、alice walker is a feminist african american writer who actively participated in the civil rights movement of the 1960s.
2、in the story everyday use: for your grandmama, dee is homely, introverted, less gifted intellectually and is always intimidated by dee.
3、mrs. johnson decides that maggie’s practical approach to heritage is worse than dee’s superficial, impersonal concept of heritage.
4、dee seeks her cultural heritage without understanding the heritage itself.
5、in the story everyday use: for your grandmama, mama is an inheritor. dee is a defender. maggie is a betrayer.
6、the whole story of everyday use: for your grandmamma centers upon the mother and two daughter’s conflicting ideas about their identities and ______ .
7、the old_____ is an emblem of african american women's culture, an object of communal harmony made by women out of their well-worn clothes.
8、everyday use: for your grandmama is walker’s answer to social discourse of that time, especially concerning african americans concept of heritage and _____.
9、dee adopted this name to show her _______to the oppressive social and economic culture.
10、mama and maggie symbolize the connection between generations and the that ______passed between them.
chapter four man vs. himself
4-1 a psychoanalytical reading of "young goodman brown"随堂测验
1、1）“young goodman brown” is a novel written by the american dark romantic writer nathanial hawthorne, published in 1835.
2、2) in the story, brown tells his wife he will take part in satan’s sabbath.
3、3） the id operates according to the principle of pleasure.
4、4） in the story, the village is a place of light and order, both physically and spiritually.
5、5） in the end, brown’s id finally gives up to his superego.
6、1) “young goodman brown” is about a nocturnal ________ between satan and his followers.
7、2） in the climax of the story, to brown’s astonishment, his pure wife ______ is also bright there to pledge eternal allegiance to the fiend.
8、3) the impulsive______ can be compared to a prisoner since it’s always about some basic human instincts.
9、4） brown’s journey in the forest is a physical one as well as a _______ one.
10、5） hawthorne has realized the dangers of an overactive suppression of id and the consequent development of a tyrannous superego, through he considers the problem in his own terms as an imbalance of the mind and ________.
4-3 dilemma in "the road not taken"随堂测验
1、“the road not taken” written by robert frost, who has won four pulitzer prizes and is known as the official poet laureate of american literature.
2、the poem is narrated by the first person “i”, which reads very naturally and conversationally.
3、when we may encounter many “roads” in reality, we could make a perfect choice to take all the interests into account.
4、psychologist carl jung firstly proposed the word “archetype” in his idea of “collective unconscious”.
5、as for archetypal images, “water” as an image commonly stands for mystery of creation, birth-death-resurrection or the unconsciousness in literature.
6、as one of frost’s most popular works, “the road not taken” has won chanting praise for its optimistic_____.
7、the theme of this poem is about _____ and encourages people to live their individualism to the fullest.
8、the second stanza of the poem goes deep into the narrator’s psychological _______.
9、the interpretation of the long and ambiguous sigh in last stanza conveys is a kind of nostalgic _____and regret.
10、the “______” pattern also reflect in “the road not taken”---a traveler made a choice between two roads in the wood, went through an adventure about whether it was a good or bad one and recollected in an old age with an initiated sigh.
4-2 gothicism in "the cask of amontillado"随堂测验
1、“the cask of amontillado” is a gothic story written by edgar allan poe in 1946.
2、gothic architecture features pointed arches and vaults, flying buttresses, narrow spires, stained glass windows and so on.
3、early gothic novelists tended to set their novels in remote times like the middle ages and in remote places like italy or the middle east.
4、the general development of gothic fiction in britain and america can be roughly divided into four stages.
5、edgar allan poe’s work shows the close connection between gothic fiction and detective fiction.
6、______of gothic architecture was meant to suggest heavenward aspiration.
7、as a result of an upshot of interest in the middle ages, gothic architecture experienced a ______ in the late eighteenth century.
8、as for characters in gothic novels, ______ often appear in such stories, which means double living and can be in the form of twins or husband and wife.
9、in all the mentresor’s plan,______is the lure he will use to tempt fortunato.
10、mentresor’s _____ is “no one attacks me with impunity”, which foreshadows fortunato’s death.
4-4 the catcher in the rye： an anti-initiation story随堂测验
1、“bildungsroman”is a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of a protagonist from adulthood to death.
2、holden’s sister is the only person who trusts and supports him unconditionally.
3、the story of the catcher in the rye is told in chronological sequence, and describes the protagonist attempts at transforming from childhood to adulthood.
4、emma by jane austen (1815), jane eyre by charlotte brontë (1847), the adventures of huckleberry finn by mark twain (1884) all belong to bildungsroman.
5、the word “phony people”, is holden’s catch-all for describing the loyalty, sincerity, kindness, and integrity that he encounters in the world around him.
6、“bildungsroman”, a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of a protagonist from ____ to adulthood.
7、bildungsroman also frequently features ______characters who act as antagonists toward the main character, presenting models of maturity.
8、“catcher in the rye”, is the core _____ repeated to convey holden’s will to guard children fall out of innocence into knowledge.
9、the presence of the ______ mirrors the central conflict in the book: holden’s need for isolation as a way of self-protection versus his need for building connections with others.
10、the typical bildungsroman leaves little room for ______ .
4-5 the theatre of the absurd随堂测验
1、camus introduces his philosophy of the absurd, in which he argues that man's quest for meaning and truth is a futile endeavor.
2、the theatre of the absurd was born as a movement from the disillusionment and skepticism surrounding world war i.
3、the plays of the theatre of the absurd focus on logical acts, realistic occurrences, or traditional character development.
4、it was until after world war ii that the theatre of the absurd began to gain momentum.
5、in waiting for godot, plot is eliminated, and a timeless, circular quality emerges as two lost creatures, spend their days waiting a so-called individual (godot) to arrive.
6、_____ basically indicates that the universe lacks meaning but man has the ability to make choices and therefore develop meaning for one’s life.
7、the characters in absurd plays are unidentified and quite _______in nature, hoping to find some meaning in their lives and the existence of god.
8、black _______has been applied in waiting for godot, which is the very essence of the absurd theatre.
9、setting and passage of time of the ______ play is unclear whereas those of the traditional plays are always clearly presented to the audience.
10、the ______ of absurd plays is often redundant, full of clichés and meaningless babbles or is repetitive.