1、what is the definition of epidemiology ? a、studing underlying mechanisms of disease, dignosis and treatment. b、studying the distributino of communicable disease and relevant factors. c、studying the distributino of non-communicable disease and relevant factors, as well as measures to prevent. d、studying the distribution of diseases and health status in the population and relevant factors, as well as formulating and evaluating strategies and measures to prevent, control and eliminate diseases and promote health.
1、what is the definition of epidemiology ? a、studing underlying mechanisms of disease, dignosis and treatment. b、studying the distributino of communicable disease and relevant factors. c、studying the distributino of non-communicable disease and relevant factors, as well as measures to prevent. d、studying the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. e、studying the distribution of diseases and health status in the population and relevant factors, as well as formulating and evaluating strategies and measures to prevent, control and eliminate diseases and promote health.
2、which one is true about epidemiology ? a、studying relevant factors of disease and health status at an indivivual level. b、only studying the prevalence of communicable disease and prevention measures. c、only studying risk factors of non-communicable disease. d、studying the distribution of disease and health status in population and relevant factors. e、only studying treatment measures
3、which one is not the characteristics of epidemiology ? a、population level b、start from the distribution c、treatment only d、comparision e、prevention
4、what is the fundamental difference between observational and experimental methods in epidemiological studies ? a、there is a contorl group. b、there is no contorl group. c、there is an intervention or not. d、using blind method or not. e、statistical methods.
5、what is the difference between epidemiology and clinical medicine ? a、studying disease at the population level. b、studying the etiology of disease. c、providing diagnostic evidence d、not related with treatment. e、not studying the prognosis of disease.
1、please describe the major function of epidemiology
chapter 2 measures of diseases frequency （疾病的测量）
1. absolute frequency and relative frequency (相对频率和绝对频率指标)随堂测验
1、the relationship between numerator and denominator in rate
2. morbidity （发病率 ）随堂测验
1、the relationship between incidence and prevalence
3. mortality （死亡率）随堂测验
1、is it correct that the mortality rate of hydrophobia is 100%
4. quality of life （生命质量指标）随堂测验
1、what are the two parts of daly?
1、what is the study to compare the history of oral contraceptives between patients with cervical carcinoma and other patients hospitalized at the same time in order to explore the relationship between oral contraceptives and cervical carcinoma ? a、cross-sectional study b、ecological study c、cohort study d、case-control study
2、what is the numerator of incidence in an exposed population during a certain period ? a、all prevalent cases b、new cases c、old cases d、infected cases
3、the definition of prevalence is a、the number of new cases of a disease / the number of exposed population at the same time b、the number of old cases of a disease / the average number of population at the same time c、the number of new and old cases of a disease / the average number of population at the same time d、the number of all cases of a disease / the average number of annual population
4、a approach to comprehensively describe the distributions of time, population, and region for a disease is a、serum epidemiology b、molecular epidemiology c、genetic epidemiology d、migrant epidemiology
5、a doctor examined the hbsag status among 2,000 people and found 300 were positive.the most appropriate indicator for the survey is a、incidence b、prevalence c、attack rate d、infection rate
1、consider a class with 100 enrolled students. none of the students were ill at the begining of the school year. on september 30, a total of five studens reported having gastroenteritis. all continued to be ill on october 1, but all five recovered within 3 days. on october 14, another three students developed gastroenteritis. ll of these students continued to be ill on october 15, but all three recovered 5 days later. in this example , assume that a person cannot get gastroenteritis more than once. a. calculate the prevalence of gastroenteritis in the class on october 1 b. calculate the prevalence of gastroenteritis in the class on october 30. c. calculate the cumulative incidence of gastroenteritis in the class during the month of october.
chapter 3 descriptive studies
1、which of the following characteristics do descriptive studies have? a、collect and analyze data on an individual basis b、choose people of different natures to compare c、obtain the surveyed population by random sampling d、describe the characteristics of the disease distribution and provide a clue to the cause of the disease
2、what are the advantages of the prevalence survey study? a、the cause of the disease can be determined. b、a variety of factors can be measured in an investigation. c、the sample size is relatively small in the sampling survey. d、there is less bias in the investigation.
3、which is the method of analyzing and researching in groups without individual data? a、monitoring b、case investigation c、prevalence survey d、ecological study
4、which is the characteristics of the sampling survey that are not included? a、not suitable for diseases with a low prevalence rate. b、the progress of the investigation is fast and the workload is relatively small. c、the design and implementation are more complex. d、small sample size
5、which is the way to early detection and treatment of patients? a、census b、sampling survey c、ecological study d、longitudinal research
1、in order to ensure that the sample can reflect the overall situation, what should be considered in the analysis?
chapter 4 cohort studies
1、to test the cause of a hypothesis, who should be included in a cohort study? a、persons suffering from the diseases studied b、persons who do not suffer from the diseases studied c、people with etiological factors d、people who don't have etiological factors
2、regarding the historical cohort study, which is wrong with the statement? a、the direction of observation is from "cause" to "result" b、the direction of observation is from "result" to "cause" c、there should be complete and reliable exposure data of the subjects in the past for a certain period of time d、there should be complete and reliable information on the outcome of the subjects in the past period of time
3、from the methodological point of view, what type of research does the cohort study belong to? a、correlation research b、descriptive study c、analytical research d、experimental study
4、which is the most common bias in cohort studies? a、admission rate bias b、prevalence-incidence bias c、lost to follow-up bias d、no response bias
5、which is wrong in the description of the shared points of the experimental epidemiology and cohort study? a、all of them need to be given artificial intervention. b、all of them need to set up a control group. c、it is based on the research methods of cause and effect. d、may lead to lost to follow-up bias.
1、describe the factors influencing the sample size.
chapter 5 case-control study （病例对照研究）
1. introduction (简介)随堂测验
1、what is the nested case-control study?
2. selection of cases and controls (如何选择病例和对照)随堂测验
1、the advantages and disadvantages of using prevalent case
3. definition of exposure and match (如何定义暴露和进行匹配)随堂测验
1、what are the advantages and disadvantages of matching
4. design a case-control study (病例对照研究的设计与计算)随堂测验
1、can you distinguish the matched and unmatched case-control
5. application and limitation (病例对照研究的应用和局限性)随堂测验
1、what are limitations of case-control studies?
chapter 5 case-control study
1、a case-control study is characterized by all of the following except: a、it is relatively inexpensive compared with most other epidemiologic study designs b、patients with the disease (cases) are compared with persons without the disease (controls) c、incidence rates may be computed directly d、assessment of past exposure may be biased
2、residents of three villages with three different types of water supply were asked to participate in a survey to identify cholera carriers. because several cholera deaths had occurred recently, virtually everyone present at the time underwent examination. the proportion of residents in each village who were carriers was computed and compared. what is the proper classification for this study? a、cross-sectional study b、case-control study c、prospective cohort study d、retrospective cohort study
3、which of the following is a case-control study? a、study of past mortality or morbidity trends to permit estimates of the occurrence of disease in the future b、analysis of previous research in different places and under different circumstances to permit the establishment of hypotheses based on cumulative knowledge of all known factors c、obtaining histories and other information from a group of known cases and from a comparison group to determine the relative frequency of a characteristic or exposure under study d、study of the incidence of cancer in men who have quit smoking
4、in a study begun in 1965, a group of 3,000 adults in baltimore were asked about alcohol consumption. the occurrence of cases of cancer between 1981 and 1995 was studied in this group. this is an example of: a、a cross-sectional study b、a prospective cohort study c、a retrospective cohort study d、a clinical trial
5、in a small pilot study, 12 women with endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterus) and 12 women with no apparent disease were contacted and asked whether they had ever used estrogen. each woman with cancer was matched by age, race, weight, and parity to a woman without disease. what kind of study design is this? a、prospective cohort study b、retrospective cohort study c、case-control study d、cross-sectional study
questions for case-control study
1、state the main advantages and disadvantages of case-control studies
chapter 6 clinical trial
1、which feature cannot be found in randomized controlled trials a、established a control group b、artificially giving experimental groups interventions c、blind method in experiment d、analysis using or e、using rr for analysis
2、the difference in epidemiological experimental studies compared with prospective cohort studies is a、research direction from outcome to causes b、established a control group c、interventions were implemented for the experimental group d、can be used for cause inference e、can be used to verify the cause of the hypothesis
3、randomly selected 100 children in the 5-year-old group for immunization prevention trial, followed up for 8 years, the results showed that 70% of immunized patients did not suffer from the disease of interest. in this study, which followingopinionis correct? a、the vaccine is effective because 70% of children do not have the disease b、the vaccine is ineffective because 30% of children have the disease c、can't conclude because there is no statistical test d、can't conclude because the observation time is not long enough e、can't conclude because there is no control group
4、assuming that a vaccine against hepatitis c was developed. to evaluate the effectiveness of this vaccine, the population that should be selected as the research object is a、people infected with hepatitis c b、people with low incidence of hepatitis c c、people who have been infected with hepatitis c and have antibodies in their bodies d、high-risk population of hepatitis c e、people who have been infected with hepatitis b
5、the experimental group additionally received other treatments consistent with the experimental effects, resulting in the artificial illusion of exaggeration of efficacy, this bias is called a、selective bias b、measurement bias c、interference d、contaminated e、compliance
1、describe the characteristics of clinical trials.
chapter 7 screening test
1、the incorrect statement about screening test is a、person who has possible diseases can be found in a healthy group b、can find the high risk population c、separate patients and non-patients clearly d、understand the natural history of the disease
2、when the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious, the test is required to have a higher a、sensitivity b、specificity c、youden index d、positive likelihood ratio
3、the indicator that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the diagnostic test method is a、sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio b、correlation coefficient, correct index and likelihood ratio c、correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation and kappa value d、predicted value, youden index and coincidence rate
4、diabetes screening in a community, 25% of patients with diabetes have a fasting blood glucose test negative, this value reflects the fasting blood glucose test a、sensitivity b、specificity c、false positive rate d、false negative rate
5、comparing the effects of screening on the survival of thyroid cancer and lung cancer may result in a、leading time bias b、length bias c、selection bias d、misclassification bias
1、carry one screening test, which principle should be followed?
chapter 8 causal inference
1、which one is correct about necessary cause ? a、obesity is the necessary cause of hypertension. b、hiv infection is the necessary cause of aids. c、the propability of a disease by a necessary cause is over 95%. d、the propability of disease by a necessary cause is less than 5%.
2、an etiology in epidemiology refers to a、a factor that causes the disease when it appears. b、a necessary factor for a disease. c、a biological factor in the pathgenesis. d、a factor that increases the probability of a disease.
3、which rank of study design correctly shows the strong to weak causal evidence ? a、randomized controlled experiment, single-group time series experiment, multi-group time series experiment, no control before and after comparison experiment b、randomized controlled trial, case-control study, case-control study nested in a cohort,ecological study c、prospective cohort study, case-control study nested in a cohort, case-control study, cross-sectional study d、historic cohort study, prospective cohort study, case-control study, cross-sectional study
4、one factor and a disease are both related to another factor.the resulting statistical asssociation between the disease and another factor is called a、accidental association b、secondary association c、artificial association d、direct causal association
5、in an outbreak of food poisoning, it was found that although age, sex, dormitorie, and tables were different, all the patients had eaten cold beef. therefore, the food was suspected to be a risk factor for food poisoning. the method to establish this assumption is called a、method of concomitant variation b、method of difference c、method of agreement d、method of analogy